"Philosophy is a form of public consciousness aimed at posing, analyzing and solving fundamental worldview issues related to the development of a holistic view of the world and the place in it of a person, understanding of various forms of a person’s attitude to the world (cognitive, value, practical, etc.). Philosophy "This is a theoretically formulated worldview, a belief system."
A brief dictionary of philosophical terms.
Philosophy as a special form of cognition of the world is based on experience.
Philosophy is based on experience, and the tool is the mind.
The purpose of philosophy is to know the truth.
In Indian literature, the knowledge of truth is called darsana, i.e. "vision of truth."
In Indian philosophy, six darshan or philosophical systems stand out that rely on the knowledge of ancient Vedic scriptures. Vedic knowledge has been clearly heard through meditation practices. The Sanskrit word "Veda" means "teaching," "knowledge." The Vedic writings were written in verse form and passed from mouth to mouth.
Darshanas: mimansa, vedanta, sankhya, yoga, nyaya and vaisesika. All of them are considered orthodox, because recognize the authority of the Vedas.
Yoga is one of the darshanas of Indian philosophy.
Yoga is the oldest of the sciences. No one knows the origin. Legends say that the gods stood at the source and the first great master was God Shiva.
The founder of yoga is considered the holy sage Patanjali, who lived about 200 years before our era. He first laid out in a systematic way the ancient art of yoga. His work on yoga is called the Yoga Sutras, which contains 196 statements about yoga.
The entire text is divided into four chapters:
1. Samadhipada. A chapter on what yoga is, on its goals, forms and methods of achieving the goal.
2. Sadhanapada. It tells about the obstacles to yoga and how to overcome them.
3. Vibhutipada. The third chapter of sutras on internal practices.
4. Cavallapada. About the power of the mind and the ultimate goal of yoga.
The word yoga means "unity", "connection", "connection". Patanjali defines yoga as a means to achieve peace and liberation from all distractions.
The goal of yoga is to achieve samadhi, or kavalya, through the transformation of consciousness.
Yoga provides an opportunity to gain knowledge about the true reality and awareness of the divine nature of man.
The Upanishads say that the whole world is a manifest transcendental reality. The experience of this reality is samadhi, which is the goal of yoga.
The sage developed the path of yoga, consisting of eight steps. This path is called Ashtanga Yoga Patanjali, and the practitioner is called a yogi or yogi.
Ashta means eight, and the word anga means element, part. The eight elements of Ashtanga Yoga are:
1. The pit. Attitude to the outside world includes the five commandments: Ahimsa, Satya, Astea, Brahmacharya and Aparigraha.
2. Niyama. Code of practice for personal discipline. Panjali describes five rules: shaucha, santosha, tapas, svadhyaya, ishvara-pranidhada.
3. Asana. The word means "pose", this is the stage of development of poses.
4. Pranayama. Breath control.
5. Pratyahara. Control of the five senses (taste, touch, smell, vision and hearing).
6. Dharana. Degree of concentration.
7. Dhyana. The stage of meditation.
8. Samadhi. Samadhi, or kavalya, is the goal of yoga. At this stage, the yogi connects with the Absolute.
Having gone through all eight steps, the yogi knows himself, the world around him and approaches the truth.
In the philosophy of yoga there are two more concepts: "purusha" and "prakriti."
Purusha is pure consciousness, spiritual substance, eternal spirit.
Prakriti is matter. All its physical objects and energy fields.
In Indian philosophy, purusha and prakriti are considered as two aspects of creative consciousness. Together they combine male and female energies. Everything on earth is formed by the unity of the spiritual and the material.
All human suffering is due to the limitations of material nature. The more a person becomes attached to material pleasures, the more suffering he has.
The human soul, attached to the material world, goes through the cycle of incarnations. And, therefore, suffering in human life always takes place, having at its core a causal relationship, i.e. karma.
Yoga as an instrument allows a person to be freed from suffering by separating the spirit from matter (purusha from prakriti).
Purusha is part of Ishvara. "Ishvara" is another definition in the yoga system, which means: the Absolute, Creator, Supreme Mind, pure Light or God.
In conclusion of this article, I would like to note that the science of yoga gives every person liberation, regardless of religion, race, social status.